The pulled videos showed Navalny calling for Russians to demonstrate in the country to protest a plan to raise the nation's retirement age, BBC News reported. A total of 452 people were detained there, while in Moscow, 43 people were held after authorities had denied an application to hold a rally, the group said.
United Russia also suffered defeats to the Communists in party-list votes for three regional parliaments.
The demonstrations were called to protest changes to the pension retirement ages that were hiked from 55 years for women and 60 for men to 63 and 65 respectively.
A further 180 protesters were reported to have been detained in the city of Yekaterinburg, in the Ural Mountains, 60 in the southern Russian city of Krasnodar, 40 in the Siberian city of Omsk, and 40 in Russia's capital, Moscow.
Five people were arrested in Saint Petersburg, two in Moscow, 44 in the Siberian city of Omsk and dozens more in rallies elsewhere, OVD-info said mid-afternoon.
A demonstration in Moscow's Pushkin Square attracted around 2,000 people, who chanted slogans such as "Russia without Putin" and held signs reading, "Putin, when will you go on pension?" Vladimir Chernikov, the head of Moscow region security, said that the demonstrators "failed to cause a provocation" but "spoiled the mood" of residents celebrating the annual City Day weekend.
Viktor Fedoseyev and Vasil Kostylev, who were detained in central Moscow in connection with the protests, have been charged with assaulting an officer, according to the Open Russia civic movement established by former Russian tycoon and Kremlin foe Mikhail Khodorkovsky. He added that "hooligans and provocateurs" mixed up with protesters and assailed police.
Reports said protests also took place in Kaliningrad, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania.
Russian political analyst Dmitry Oreshkin told the Kyiv Post that the results were due to Putin's pension reform plan and worsening economic conditions amid Western sanctions.
"Putin and his government have plundered the budget for the past 18 years", Mr Navalny's team said in a statement prior to Sunday's protests. The authorities refused to authorise most of the meetings, declaring them illegal. "They will do what they can to get protest voters to stay home". Sobyanin traditionally came to polling station number 90 on Nikolayeva Street.
Ahead of the vote a Moscow court jailed Navalny for 30 days, just a couple weeks before he planned to stage a rally against a deeply controversial pension reform on election day.